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入菩萨行讲义 第四讲 不放逸品

导读:第四讲 【不放逸品】 Lecture 4 : Chapter Four Conscientiousness 日期:二零零三年三月一日 上次讲座总结了忏悔罪障和积集资粮,都是为了生起菩提心而作好准备,例如先净化内心的污垢;皈依是深信三宝能让我们从轮回的痛苦解脱出来,免除我们的恐惧心;礼拜是净化我们的傲慢心;忏悔对治瞋心;随喜对治嫉妒;请转*轮增长智慧,对治我们的无明;请佛住世坚定虔敬,对治我们的...
第四讲 【不放逸品】 Lecture 4 : Chapter Four Conscientiousness 日期:二零零三年三月一日 上次讲座总结了忏悔罪障和积集资粮,都是为了生起菩提心而作好准备,例如先净化内心的污垢;皈依是深信三宝能让我们从轮回的痛苦解脱出来,免除我们的恐惧心;礼拜是净化我们的傲慢心;忏悔对治瞋心;随喜对治嫉妒;请转*轮增长智慧,对治我们的无明;请佛住世坚定虔敬,对治我们的疑心;普皆回向对治我们的悭吝。这几点做好后,内心大部份得到净化,愿菩提心稳住内心;但寂天菩萨要我们有具体表示,例如施财,甚至施身;这样当我们与众生在「利」字之下,我们一样会舍弃利益而保住愿菩提心,这时受持菩萨戒,发行菩提心的因缘已趋成熟,「珍宝菩提心,未生者愿生」;已生起菩提心,就要「已生愿不退」;受菩萨戒后,就不能让心放逸散漫,所谓「不放逸」就是要非常谨慎的去修行。寂天菩萨首先提醒我们不应舍菩萨戒。如果我们出尔反尔,舍弃菩提心,便会下堕恶趣。「若誓利众生,而不勤践履,则为欺有情,来生何所似?」又说:「后反欺众生,云何生善趣?」此外,更糟的是,菩提心是利益无量众生,你舍弃了菩提心,即是意味着侵损很多众生的安乐;「菩萨戒堕中,此罪最严重!」「因损有情利,恶趣报无边!」出尔反尔,舍弃菩萨戒,就算你悔改,立即修补誓戒,自己亦耽误了体证空性的机会。接着寂天菩萨教导我们以「不放逸」的态度来守持菩萨戒。放逸有很多害处,例如容易堕落下流;佛也不能化度;而最重要的是暇满人身一旦失去,「此身不向今生度,更向何生度此身!」寂天菩萨认为我们得到暇满人身,此刻便要认真修善,否则实在愚笨,死神到来时,后悔便太迟;「因痴复怠惰,则于临终时,定生大忧苦!」「难得有益身,若仍堕地狱,则如咒所惑,何蛊藏心耶?」最后,寂天菩萨直接指出:「不放逸的终极意思就是要跟内心烦恼时刻对抗,寸土必争,不能放松。」寂天菩萨指出烦恼有很多过患,例如束缚着我们,「役我怎如奴」;烦恼是自己最可怕的敌人;「强力烦恼敌,掷我入狱火,须弥若遇之,灰烬亦无余!」就算是最歹毒的敌人,最多能侵害你一百年,但是烦恼敌却可以生生世世如影随形地侵损你。如果你认为用打压方式不能尽消烦恼,不如改用怀柔的方式,但这样做只会引狼入室,最后受害的仍是自己。对付烦恼只有一个原则:「不是它死,便是我亡」。寂天菩萨这样描写奋勇消灭烦恼的勇气:「是故未灭彼,壮士不成眠。」「未达目的已,不向后逃逸。」「故今虽遭致,百般诸痛苦,然终不应当,丧志生懈怠。」「吾宁被烧杀,或遭断头苦,然心终不屈,顺就烦恼敌。」虽然对治烦恼很艰难,但寂天菩萨安慰我们:「烦恼一旦被智慧所破,便一去不复返。」此外,寂天菩萨恐怕我们走错路,特别提醒我们,所有烦恼都是由内心产生的;我们不要被贪、瞋、痴吓怕或迷惑,而必须要找到它们的来源;「心」根本虚幻,我们一旦知道事实真相,就不会被烦恼迷惑或吓怕了。(一)佛子既如是,坚持菩提心,恒勤勿懈怠,莫违诸学处。已经坚定地抓住这颗菩提心的佛子们,请不要背离它,应恒常持守菩提心戒。Having firmly seized the Awakening Mind in this way, a Conqueror’s son must never waver; always should he exert himself to never stray from his practice.(二)遇事不慎思,率尔未经意,虽已誓成办,后宜思取舍。在事前没有详细考虑,但既然已许下承诺,便不应轻率去作;之后更应详加理解,转化任何会生起的疑惑、压力和退转。In the case of reckless actions or of deeds not well considered, although a promise may have been made it is fit to reconsider whether I should do them or not.(三)诸佛及佛子,大慧所观察,吾亦屡思择,云何舍誓戒。可是,诸佛及佛子以大智慧去观察发心守持菩提心,而我自己对此则重视及曾经深思熟虑,现在又何须生疑惑呢?But how can I ever withdraw from what has been examined by the great wisdom of the Buddhas and their Sons, and even many times by myself?(四)若誓利众生,而不勤践履,则为欺有情,来生何所似?假如我许下承诺要利

入菩萨行讲义 第四讲 不放逸品

益众生,但又不能守诺言的话,那么,所有众生都被我出卖;我做人还有宗旨吗?If having made such a promise I do not put it into action, then by deceiving every living being what kind of rebirth shall I take?(五)意若思布施,微少凡常物,因悭未施与,经说堕饿鬼。如佛经中所说:「假如有人心想作出丁点儿奉献,但接着又退转,这人将转生成饿鬼。」If it has been taught (by the Buddha) that he who does not give away the smallest thing he once intended to give will take rebirth as a hungry ghost.(六)况请众生赴,无上安乐宴,后反欺众生,云何生善趣?如果我内心希望感召众生享受无上喜悦的宴会,但又做一些令他们失望,甚至出卖他们的事,我又怎能获得乐果呢?Then if I should deceive all beings after having sincerely invited them to the unsurpassable bliss, shall I take a happy rebirth?(七)有人舍觉心,却办解脱果1?彼业不克思,知唯一切智。对那些失却菩提心但仍能成就解脱的人来说,这就完全是由于不可思议的业力,只有遍知者(指佛陀)才了知。Only the Omniscient can discern the manner of the action of those who give up the Awakening Mind but are freed; it is beyond the scope of (ordinary) thought.(八)菩萨戒堕中,此罪最严重,

入菩萨行讲义 第四讲 不放逸品

因彼心若生,将损众生利。退却菩提心是菩萨戒最严重的过犯行为,因为这将令一切有情众生感到因减损利益而失落。This, for a Bodhisattva, is the heaviest of downfalls, for should it ever happen, the welfare of all will be weakened.(九)虽仅一剎那,障碍他人德,因损有情利,恶趣报无边。任何人只要于一剎那障碍菩萨行持功德,他将无止息地在迷惑中流转,因为一切众生的利益都被损减。And should others for even a single moment hinder or obstruct his wholesome deeds, by weakening the welfare of all there will be no end to their rebirth in lower states.(十)毁一有情乐,自身且遭损,况毁尽空际,有情众安乐。只是毁坏一个众生的安乐,你自身将同样遭受毁损。假如毁坏所有人的安乐...还有什么话可说呢?For if my being is impaired by destroying the joy of even one creature, then what need is there to mention destroying the joy of creatures vast as space?(十一)故杂罪堕力,及菩提心力,升沉轮回故,登地久蹉跎。如人一方面守持菩提心,但又杂间地犯罪堕失毁它,使长久处于轮回升沉,障碍自己登上菩萨地。Thus those who have the force of an Awakening Mind as well as the force of falling (from it) stay revolving within cyclic existenc

入菩萨行讲义 第四讲 不放逸品

e and for a long time are hindered in reaching the Bodhisattva levels.(十二)故如所立誓,我当恭敬行,今后若不勉,定当趋下流。因此我将依照我所许下的誓言,全心奉献地行持。因为如果不勉力这样做的话,我将会愈堕愈低下(恶趣)。Therefore just as I have promised shall I respectfully accord my actions. If from now on I make no effort I shall descend from lower to lower states.(十三)饶益众有情,无量佛已逝,然我因昔过,未得佛化育2。为了利益一切有情众,过去已有无量诸佛住世及入灭,但以我这般放逸的罪人,是未能被摄受到他们度化范围内的。Although for the benefit of every creature countless Buddhas have passed by, yet I was not an object of their care because of my own mistakes.(十四)若今依旧犯,如是将反复,恶趣中领受,病缚剖割苦。假如我继续明知故犯,依旧放逸;我的命运将会受下三恶道痛苦的缠缚、伤创和截割。And if I continue to act like this, again and again shall I undergo suffering in unhappy realms, sickness, bondage, laceration and the shedding of blood.(十五)如值佛出世,为人信佛法,宜修善稀有,何日复得此?诸佛于世间的显现、真实的信佛、获得暇满的人身、天赋的善根:这一切都极为稀有难得,(如果一旦失去,)哪一天才能重新获得?If the arising of a Tathāgata, faith, the attainment of a human body and my being fit to cultivate virtue are scarce, when will they be won again?(十六)纵似今无病,足食无损伤,然寿剎那逝,身犹须臾质。如今我虽健壮,有足够衣食,又没有烦恼,但这期生命却短暂,且又靠不住。其实这身体只不过是暂借给我,很快便会失去。Although today I am healthy, well-nourished and unafflicted, life is momentary and deceptive: the body is like an object on loan for but a minute.(十七)凭吾此行素,复难得人身,若不得人身,徒恶乏善行3。而我这样放逸的行为,后世将不再投生人道!若失去这期宝贵的人身,生于恶趣,就只有继续造罪,缺乏修善的机会。我将因太多的恶业,而再难得生善趣了。And with behavior such as this I shall not win a human body again. And if this human form is not attained, there will be solely evil and no virtue.(十八)如具行善缘,而我未为善,恶趣众苦逼,彼时复何为?当下就是行善的好机缘,如果我还不好好把握成就功德的话,当我下堕恶趣、陷入恶趣的迷惑困境时,我的命运将会是如何?我该怎样做才是?If when I have the chance to live a wholesome life, my actions are not wholesome. Then what shall I be able to do when confused by the misery of the lower realms?(十九)既未行诸善,复集众恶业,纵历一亿劫,不闻善趣名。(堕入恶趣后)不但没有机会修任何功德善业,而且还只管犯恶积业,如此纵经历一亿劫,也听不到善趣的名称,快乐亦恐怕难临我身。And if I commit no wholesome deeds (there), but readily amass much evil, then for a hundred million aeons I shall not even hear the words “a happy life”.(二十)是故世尊说:人身极难得;如海中盲龟,颈入轭木孔。就是这个原因,世尊曾经宣说,如一头在无边无际的海洋里浮沉的盲龟,偶尔把头伸进浮在海面漂浮不定的木轭中,投生为人恐怕比此更困难呢!For these very reasons, the Buddha has said that hard as it is for a turtle to insert its neck into a yoke adrift upon the vast ocean, it is extremely hard to attain the human state.(二十一)剎那造重罪,历劫住无间,何况无始罪,积重失善趣。假如剎那的恶业导致长时间堕入最深层的地狱中,那么我从无始以来所作众多恶业–不用多说,必定阻碍我往生乐趣。If even by the evil of one instant an aeon may be spent in the deepest hell, then because of the evil I have gathered since beginningless time, what need to mention, my not going to a happy realm.(二十二)然仅受彼报,苦犹不得脱,因受恶报时,复生余多罪。然而仅受少许以前的恶报,痛苦的经验是不会令我解脱恶趣的痛苦的;因为在受苦报的过程中,又会因烦恼造作更多新的罪业,结果惹来更大的恶果。But having experienced merely that (rebirth in hell) I shall still not be liberated; for while it is being experienced other evil will be extensively produced.(二十三)既得此闲暇,若我不修善,自欺莫胜此,亦无过此愚。既然获得了这个暇满人身,假如我仍不懂得去训练自己修善,还有什么比此更愚痴呢?有什么比此更能出卖自己呢?So if, when having found leisure such as this, I do not attune myself to what is wholesome, there could be no greater deception and there could be no greater folly.(二十四)若我已解此,因痴复怠惰,则于临终时,定生大忧苦。纵使我对此完全明白,但我又把光阴花在无意义的事情上,当死亡降临时,我一定会生起忧愁苦恼。And if, having understood this, I still foolishly continue to be slothful. When the hour of death arrives, tremendous grief will rear its head.(二十五)难忍地狱火,长久烧身时,悔火亦炙燃,吾心必痛苦。当我(恶业成熟)的身体在地狱之火中难以忍受地长期炙燃时,我的心灵亦同时被煎熬着–在无边的悔疚火焰中焚烧。Then if my body blazes for a long time in the unbearable flames of hell, inevitably my mind will be tormented by the fires of unendurable remorse.(二十六)难得有益身,今既侥幸得,亦复具智慧,若仍堕地狱,此时侥幸获得成办解脱利益的人身,我亦有掌握自由的选择权,如果我又再次让它溜走而下堕地狱的话,Having found by some coincidence this beneficial state that is so hard to find. If now while able to discriminate I once gain am led into the hells,(二十七)则如咒所惑,令我心失迷,惑患无所知,何蛊藏心耶?现在我就好像受了魔法一样,变得麻木,内心感到完全无能为力,被什么蛊毒潜藏在内心,被它操控着,我已没有知觉,究竟我在发生什么一回事?Then as though I were hypnotized by a spell I shall reduce this mind to nothing. Even I do not know what is causing me confusion, what is there dwelling inside me?(二十八)瞋贪等诸敌,无手也无足,非勇非精明,役我怎如奴?瞋恨、贪执–我的怨敌–无手无足亦无感官。它们既无勇,也不聪颖;它们怎么能令我成为它们的奴隶呢?Although enemies such as hatred and craving have neither any arms nor legs, and are neither courageous nor wise, how have I been used like a slave by them?(二十九)惑住我心中,任意伤害我,犹忍不瞋彼,非当应诃责。迎请它们进入自己内心的人就是我,让它们恣意地伤害自己!我竟无怨恨地承受一切苦。故此,我的不应当(懦弱),应受诃责。For while they dwell within my mind at their pleasure they cause me harm, yet I patiently endure them without any anger; but this is an inappropriate and shameful time for patience.(三十)纵使天非天,齐来敌对我,然彼也不能,掷我入无间。即使所有天和非天等,一同与我为敌,这股强大的力量–也不足以令我下堕无间地狱中。Should even all the gods and demi-gods rise up against me as my enemies, they could not lead nor place me in the roaring fires of deepest hell.(三十一)强力烦恼敌,掷我入狱火,须弥若遇之,灰烬亦无余。可是,我的烦恼怨敌竟能于剎那间,令我堕进地狱之火,连须弥山王也能烧至灰烬之处。But the mightly foe, these disturbing conceptions, in a moment can cast me amidst (those flames) which when met will cause not even the ashes of the king of mountains to remain.(三十二)吾心烦恼敌,长住无尽期,其余世间敌,命不如是久。没有任何怨敌能像我的烦恼那么长久地住世–噢!我的烦恼怨敌,无始又无终的怨亲啊!All other enemies are incapable of remaining for such a length of time as can my disturbing conceptions, the enduring enemy with neither beginning nor end.(三十三)若我顺侍敌,敌或利乐我,若随诸烦恼,徒遭伤害苦。那些我柔顺地雌伏面对的世间怨敌,他们或许为我带来利益,且令我安乐;但我正侍奉着的黑暗染污的烦恼,却只会使我遭受更多伤害,陷入悲伤中。If I agreeably honor and entrust myself to others, they will bring me benefit and happiness. But if I entrust myself to these disturbing conceptions, in future they will bring only misery and harm.(三十四)无始相续敌,孽祸唯一因,若久住我心,生死怎无惧?因此,无始以来相续陪伴着我的怨敌,痛苦业祸的唯一泉源,如果让自己内心成为了它们的避难所的话,世间又怎能得到喜悦和平静呢?While in cyclic existence how can I be joyful and unafraid if in my heart I readily prepare a place for this incessant enemy of long duration, the sole cause for the increase of all that harms me?(三十五)生死牢狱卒,地狱刽子手,若皆住我心,安乐何能有?假如让在轮回中的狱卒、地狱道的屠夫和行刑者(指烦恼),全部都张牙舞爪,我还有什么希望?我怎能得到安乐呢?And how shall I ever have happiness if in a net of attachment within my mind there dwell the guardians of the prison of cyclic existence, there (disturbing conceptions) that become my butchers and tormentors in hell?(三十六)乃至吾未能,亲灭此惑敌,尽吾此一生,不应舍精进;于他微小害,尚起瞋恼心,是故未灭彼,壮士不成眠。直至我亲眼看见这些烦恼怨敌全部被毁灭,否则我是不会停止这场争斗的,我亦不应舍弃精进。平时他人对自己作小小伤害,尚会生起瞋恼之心。除非可恶的烦恼怨敌消灭,否则真正的大丈夫是应该睡不着觉的。Therefore as long as this enemy is not slain with certainty before my very eyes, I shall never give up exerting myself (towards that end). Having become angry at someone who caused only slight and short-lived harm, self-important people will not sleep until their enemy is overcome.(三十七)列阵激战场,奋力欲灭除,终必自老死,生诸苦恼敌,仅此尚不顾,箭矛着身苦,未达目的已,不向后逃逸。将士们列阵在战场上激烈地交锋,必欲将敌人消灭,但这些将士最终都会死亡,并且在死亡时产生极大的苦恼。尽管如此,他们仍不畏惧在战线上所受肉体之苦来达到胜利,而且绝不向后逃跑。And if while engaged in a violent battle, vigorously desiring to conquer those whose disturbing conceptions will naturally bring them suffering at death, men disregard the pain of being pierced by spears and arrows.(三十八)况吾正精进,决志欲灭尽,恒为痛苦因,自然烦恼敌。故今虽遭致,百般诸痛苦,然终不应当,丧志生懈怠。就算这场斗争是如何艰苦,我也不会退却,这是不必多说的。今天,我很坚决地要消灭无始以来的自生怨敌–一切痛苦的制造者–烦恼怨敌,期间不应该丧失斗志,懒散懈怠。Then what need to mention that I should not be faint-hearted and slothful, even if I caused many hundreds of sufferings when now I strive to definitely overcome my natural enemies, (these disturbing conceptions) which are the constant source of my misery?(三十九)将士为微利,赴战遭敌伤,战归炫身伤,犹如配勋章。吾今为大利,修行勤精进,所生暂时苦,云何能困我?在无意义的战斗中,遭受怨敌损害的伤口,会被战士夸赞为奖状。为此伟大的奖状尚且要作出极大的努力,那短暂的损害和伤口又怎能使我气馁呢?If even scars inflicted by meaningless enemies are worn upon the body like ornaments, then why is suffering a cause of harm to me who impeccably strives to fulfil the great purpose?(四十)渔夫与屠户,农牧等凡俗,唯念己自身,求活维生计,犹忍寒与热,疲困诸艰辛;我今为众乐,云何不稍忍?渔夫、屠夫、农夫等为生计,尚且也要受尽寒热之痛苦;为了众生的利益和快乐,我又怎能不忍受修行中的痛苦呢?If fisherman, hunters and farmers, thinking merely of their own livelihood, endure the sufferings of heat and cold, why am I not patient for the sake of the world’s joy?(四十一)虽曾立此誓,欲于十方际,度众出烦恼,然我未离惑。虽然我立誓为要度尽十方虚空际的众生解脱其烦恼,可是我自己却尚未解脱烦恼。While I have promised to liberate all those beings throughout space in the ten directions from their disturbing conceptions, I myself was not yet freed from mine.(四十二)出言不量力,云何非颠狂?故于灭烦恼,应恒不退怯。因此,我可算是不自量力–如此立誓确是诳语。因此,对于与烦恼的争斗,应恒时精进,永不退转。Thus unaware of even my own capacity, was it not somewhat crazy to have spoken like that? But as this is so I must never withdraw from vanquishing my disturbing conceptions.(四十三)吾应乐修断,怀恨与彼战,似瞋此道心,唯能灭烦恼。这就是充斥着我的怨忿了;满怀仇恨,我将要开始这场与烦恼的战争了!虽然这像是不净之念头,但它却能止息烦恼,而且也不应放弃。And to do this will be my sole obsession. Holding a strong grudge I shall meet them in battle! But disturbing conceptions such as these destroy disturbing conceptions and (for the time being) are not to be abandoned.(四十四)吾宁被烧杀,或遭断头苦,然心终不屈,顺就烦恼敌。宁死在火坑中,或是头颅被斩离身体,也不愿成为自己烦恼怨敌的奴仆。It would be better for me to be burned, to have my head cut off and to be killed, rather than ever bowing down to those ever-present disturbing conceptions.(四十五)驱凡常敌出此境,则便盘踞住他乡,养足能力旋复返;烦恼贼则不如是。一般世间敌人被攻击时,就会退到盘踞其他地方,到了重整集合力量后,再次出击。但我们的烦恼却不会这样,它一去就不会再复返。Common enemies when expelled from one country simply retire and settle down in another, though when their strength is recovered they return. But the way of this enemy, my disturbing conceptions is not similar in this respect.(四十六)烦恼若为慧眼断,驱出吾意何所之?居处何处返害我?然我懦弱乏精进。智慧之眼能把烦恼驱散!从我的心走出来,你将往哪儿走?你想何时伤害我?可是,我懦弱懒惰,缺乏精进,我内心是何等的脆弱!Deluded disturbing conceptions! When forsaken by the eye of wisdom and dispelled from my mind, where will you go? Where will you dwell in order to be able to injure me again? But, weak-minded, I have been reduced to making no effort.(四十七)惑非住外境,非住根身间,亦非其他处,云何害众生?惑幻心莫惧,为智应精进。何苦于地狱,无义受伤害?但染污的并不是在对境中,也不是在我们的感官上,亦不是在两者之间。假如不在任何地方,它住在哪儿?那它到底住在何处伤害众生呢?它只不过是虚妄幻相,请鼓起勇气吧!消除你对它们一切的恐惧,精进去了解它们的本质。为何受尽无谓的地狱之苦呢?If these disturbing conceptions do not exist within the objects, the sense organs, between the two nor elsewhere, then where do they exist and how do they harm the world? They are like an illusion - thus I should dispel within my heart and strive resolutely for wisdom. For no real reason, why should I suffer so much in hell?(四十八)思已当尽力,圆满诸学处,若不遵医嘱,病患何能愈?我应该如此反思,并竭力地去守持菩萨戒。不遵照医生的指示去服药,病患又怎能疗愈呢?Therefore having thought about this well, I should try to put these precepts into practice just as they have been explained. If the doctor’s instructions are ignored, how will a patient in need of cure be healed by his medicines?第四品完第四讲完注释1 这是问难,故事出自《妙法莲华经》(Saddharma-p̣ụndarika-sūtra)。据说舍利弗尊者于六十劫中修持菩萨行,转生成月光国王;在修菩萨行上,进步神速。一天,魔罗来试探他,目的是要把月光国王拉下来。他化现成人形向月光国王乞求右手;于是国王便自断右手,然后用左手将血淋淋的右手递给魔罗;魔罗化现的乞者显得很生气,指责国王说:「你怎么用左手拿东西给我。」因当地风俗,以左手递东西给别人,是不礼貌的行为。但当时国王心想:「我右手已斩断,仅剩左手,不得不以左手递你需要的东西,为什么众生这么难满足呢?」就是这个缘故,舍利弗对众生感到失望,退失菩提心,由菩萨乘转到修行声闻乘。2 要与佛相应,并从佛的教法获益,追随者必须具足善根(善业的意向),并且在内心存在着一定程度的福德。一般来说,在家居士具备七圣财:信、戒、惭、愧、闻、施和慧,都被视为具善根。3 佛教认为业报是随着过去所造作的行为而生。无论当时的行为态度或道德标准怎样,恶行必定会产生痛苦的恶报。因此在三恶趣的众生;例如傍生,除了啖杀别的动物外,便没有其他生存的方法,所以一下恶趣,便只有继续积累恶业,纵使其猎杀行为是一种无可避免的本能行为,但业果报应是没有可能缓和或减轻的。下三恶趣受苦时,不断生恶心,恶业增多,受苦的时间、程度也就愈增加,出离的机会无疑趋近乎零。应用讨论问题一)什么叫不放逸?为何生起菩提心后,要不放逸和护正知来摄持,才令其功德不退转?二)巴楚仁波切说:「凡夫的心极易改变,极易转变。」有些修行人发了菩提心,受了菩萨戒;但遇上违缘,便舍弃了菩提心。试引佛经说明舍弃菩提心不对的地方及其后果。三)自己无始以来轮回生死,期间起码经历过贤劫四佛,但仍未得救度。寂天菩萨归究到只因我们放逸,所以未能受佛化育。你同意这说法吗?你有何补救的方法?四)寂天菩萨说:「当我们一失人身,下堕恶趣,因在恶趣中受苦,不断起恶心,便聚集更多恶业,而且根本不可能行善业(『然仅受彼报,苦犹不得脱,因受恶报时,复生余多罪。』)。在受苦报时,又会因烦恼造作新的罪业;所以『纵历一亿劫,不闻善趣名』。」而事实上,一旦下堕恶趣,便万劫不复,永远沉沦。但其他佛经却记载过,就算下堕地狱,时间虽长久,但也有业报圆满脱离恶趣的一天。两种说法有矛盾吗?试以自己意见抉择。五)寂天菩萨认为我们要在身、语、意三方面谨慎,做到不放逸,才可以令生起的菩提心不会退失。试将寂天菩萨具体的要求分别说明。六)试述烦恼的特性和过患。七)大乘经典《华严经》说:「不为自己求安乐,但愿众生得离苦。」又说:「地狱未空,誓不成佛。」自己烦恼未断,根本没有经验及把握去调伏众生,那样自己好像出言不逊,自己未度,又怎能度人?但是大乘人先要以饶益别人为本,如何克服这个矛盾呢?八)试依寂天菩萨之见解,申述如何断除烦恼。九)以中观对治烦恼是快捷有效的方法。寂天菩萨以中观提出:「烦恼非住于外境,非住根身非中间,此外亦非其他处,居于何处害众生?」试依你所学过的中观理论阐释。十)持守菩萨戒最怕烦恼来扰乱,烦恼由自心而生,力量极强,一般来说,只宜退避,不能正面抗衡;你同意这说法吗?寂天菩萨说:「列阵激战场,奋力欲灭除」;「是故未灭彼,壮士不成眠。」表面要与烦恼正面对抗,两者有矛盾吗?试抉择之。