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入菩萨行讲义 第十三讲 安忍品

导读:第十三讲【安忍品】 Lecture 13 : Chapter Six Patience 日期:二零零四年三月六日 这次讲座提到行菩萨道的佛弟子对众生不但不能瞋恨恼害,反而要更进一步以恭敬心去对待他们;原因是就帮助修行人成佛这点来说,众生和诸佛的效用都是一样。所以随顺众生对修行人积集福德来说,是必修的一项德目。此外,寂天菩萨又提到佛陀在无始轮回以来做过种种伟大的利生事业,肯定我们亦曾经因而受惠,...
第十三讲【安忍品】 Lecture 13 : Chapter Six Patience 日期:二零零四年三月六日 这次讲座提到行菩萨道的佛弟子对众生不但不能瞋恨恼害,反而要更进一步以恭敬心去对待他们;原因是就帮助修行人成佛这点来说,众生和诸佛的效用都是一样。所以随顺众生对修行人积集福德来说,是必修的一项德目。此外,寂天菩萨又提到佛陀在无始轮回以来做过种种伟大的利生事业,肯定我们亦曾经因而受惠,为了报答佛恩,我们好应该做一些令佛欢喜的事;例如请佛宽恕自己以前因伤害众生而令祂伤心的事,保证以后永远不再伤害众生;尽量做些利益众生的事,令佛欢喜。最后,寂天菩萨提出安忍的具体利益:修行人在证菩提果前修安忍能貌美健康、得长寿和享有名誉,甚至得到种种转轮王的快乐;还有,安忍可以令佛喜、成自利和除去世间苦等修行功德。(一一二)本师牟尼说,生佛胜福田1。常敬生佛者,圆满达彼岸。因此释迦牟尼佛说,佛和众生都是殊胜的福田。那些经常尊敬佛和众生的修行人,都能圆满自他二利而到达彼岸。Therefore the Mighty One has said that the field of sentient beings is (similar to) a Buddha-field, for many who have pleased them have thereby reached perfection.(一一三)成佛所依缘,有情等诸佛。敬佛不敬众,岂有此言教? 就修行成佛所依的助缘来说,佛和众生同等重要。如果敬重诸佛而不敬重众生,这种言行与正法不相应。2A Buddha’s qualities are gained from the sentient beings a

入菩萨行讲义 第十三讲 安忍品

nd the Conquerors alike, so why do I not respect them in the same way as I respect the Conquerors? (一一四)非说智德等,由用故云等;有情助成佛,故说生佛等。我并非说众生与佛的智慧功德相等,而是由于二者都有助成佛果的作用(这一种特定方面来说),二者相等。恭敬有情是成佛的根本助缘3,所以说众生和佛是相等的。(Of course) they are not similar in the quality of their intentions but only in the fruits (that they produce); so it is in this respect that they have excellent qualities and are therefore (said to be) equal.(一一五)怀慈供有情,因彼尊贵故,敬佛福德广,亦因佛尊贵。4心怀慈悲去供养有情的福德广大,显示出有情是尊贵的悲田;对佛陀生起敬信而积集的福德广大无边,相应地显出佛陀是尊贵的福田。Whatever merit comes from venerating one with a loving mind is due to the eminence of sentient beings. And in the same way the merit of having faith in Buddha is due to the eminence of Buddha.(一一六)助修成佛者,故许二相等,然彼非等佛,无边功德海。因众生是帮助修行人成佛的因缘,所以在这点上应承认众生与佛是相等的。然而众生的功德完全不能和诸佛的无边功德海相比。Therefore they are asserted to be equal in the share they have in establishing Buddha-qualities. But none of them ar

入菩萨行讲义 第十三讲 安忍品

e equal (in good qualities) with the Buddhas who are boundless oceans of excellence.(一一七)唯佛功德齐,于具少分者,虽供三界物,犹嫌不得足。唯有佛陀圆满了最胜的断证功德。若谁人具有佛其中少分的功德,对这些人来说,就算三界内所有的宝物悉皆供养,仍然是不足够的。Even if the three realms were offered, it would be insufficient in paying veneration to those few beings in whom a mere share of the good qualities of the Unique Assemblage of Excellence appears.(一一八)有情具功德,能生胜佛法,唯因此德符,即应供有情。因此,每一个众生都具有引生殊胜佛果的功德;单单是这份名符其实的功德,就足以证明众生是我们应该尊崇的对象了。Thus since sentient beings have a share in giving rise to the supreme Buddha-qualities, surely it is correct to venerate them as they are similar in merely this respect.(一一九)无伪众生亲,诸佛唯利生,除令有情喜,何足报佛恩?5佛陀是众生最好的亲友,因为他的心已离一切欺瞒、虚伪;所做的事只是利益众生而已。这么大的恩情,除了同样去做利益众生,让众生欢喜的事情外,我们还有什么更好的方法来报答佛恩呢?Furthermore, what way is there to repay (the Buddhas) who grant immeasurable benefit and who befriend the world without pretension, other than by pleasing sent

入菩萨行讲义 第十三讲 安忍品

ient beings?(一二零)利生方足报,舍身入狱佛,故我虽受害,亦当行众善。既然只有利益众生才足以报答为众生舍身以及入无间地狱的诸佛之恩德,那我就算受到众生无故的伤害也好,亦应当安忍无怨,广行诸善。Therefore since benefiting these beings will repay those who give their bodies and enter the deepest hell for their sake, I shall behave impeccably in all (that I do) even if they cause me a great deal of harm.(一二一)诸佛为有情,尚且不惜身,愚痴骄慢我,何不侍众生?尊贵的怙主诸佛为了利乐有情,尚且不惜自身;愚痴的我,为何这么傲慢,不去像仆役一样恭敬承侍众生呢?6When for their sake, those who are my Lords have no regard even for their own bodies, then why am I the fool so full of self-importance? Why do I not act like a servant towards them?(一二二)众乐佛欢喜,众苦佛伤悲,悦众佛愉悦,犯众亦伤佛7。众生幸福快乐,诸佛也会示现欢喜;如果众生遭受苦害,诸佛就会悲伤难过。因此,我们使众生欢喜,诸佛也会欢喜,倘若恶意侵害有情,也就是伤害了诸佛。Because of their happiness the Conquerors are delighted, but if they are harmed they are displeased. Hence by pleasing them I shall delight the Conquerors and by banning them I shall hurt the Conquerors.(一二三)遍身着火者,与欲乐不生;若伤诸有情,云何悦诸佛?全身上下着火的人,纵使你给他所有欲乐享受,他心里也不会有快乐;同样,如果伤害众生,试问还有什么办法能让诸佛生欢喜呢?Just as desirable sense-objects would give my mind no pleasure if my body was ablaze with fire. Likewise when living creatures are in pain there is no way for the Compassionate Ones to be pleased.(一二四)往昔害众生,令佛伤心怀,众罪我今悔,祈佛尽宽恕!由于我往昔伤害过众生,使悲愍众生的诸佛伤心难过,所有这一切罪过,我今天都发露忏悔,祈求诸佛慈悲宽恕。Therefore as I harm living beings, today I openly declare all my unwholesome acts that have brought displeasure to the Compassionate Ones. Please bear with me, O Lords, for this displeasure I have caused you.(一二五)为令如来喜,止害利世间,任他践吾顶,宁死悦世主。为了让如来欢喜,我从现在起,发誓不作伤害众生的恶业,同时更要积极地利益世间,那怕众生践踏我的头顶,我至死也要安忍,令世间怙主高兴。From now on, in order to delight the Tathāgatas I shall serve the universe and definitely cease to cause harm. Although many beings may kick and stamp upon my head even at the risk of dying may I delight the Protectors of the World by not retaliating.(一二六)大悲诸佛尊,视众犹如己,生佛既同体,何不敬众生8? 具有大悲自性的佛陀,已将这个世间的众生当成是祂自己;祂无疑已见到:佛与众生在体性上无二无别;那么我们为何不敬重这些众生怙主呢?There is no doubt that those with the nature of compassion regard all these beings (are the same) as themselves. Furthermore, those who see (this Buddha-nature) as the nature of sentient beings see the Buddhas themselves: why then do I not respect sentient beings? (一二七)悦众令佛喜,能成自利益,能除世间苦,故应常安忍9。安忍怨害、利乐众生,能使如来欢喜,能成办自己的利益,也能消除世间众生的痛苦,因此我要恒常修习安忍。Pleasing living beings delights the Tathāgatas and perfectly accomplishes my own purpose as well. In addition it dispels the pain and misery of the universe, therefore I should always practice it.(一二八)譬如大王臣,虽伤众多人,谋深虑远者,力堪不报复;譬如国王手下的大臣,虽然伤害了很多人,但有远见、识时务的人,纵然有力量也不会瞋怒报复;For example, should some of the king’s men cause harm to many people, farsighted men would not return the harm even if they were able to do so.(一二九)因敌力非单,王势即彼缘;故敌力虽弱,不应轻忽彼。因为他们知道仇敌不只是一个人的力量,国王的威势就是他的依靠。同样,伤害我的仇敌纵然能力薄弱,但我也不应轻易报复。For they see that these men are not alone but are supported by the might of the king. Likewise I should not underestimate weak beings who cause me a little harm.(一三零)悲佛与狱卒,吾敌众依怙,故如民侍君,普令有情喜。因为慈爱众生的佛陀和惩治罪行的狱卒都是仇敌的依怙10;所以,我应该像庶民侍奉君主一样,恒常随顺恭敬,使一切有情皆大欢喜。For they are supported by the guardians of hell and by all the Compassionate Ones. So (behaving) like the subjects of that fiery king I should please all sentient beings.(一三一)暴君纵生瞋,不能令堕狱;然犯诸有情,定遭地狱害11。 残暴的君王无论怎样生气,也不能把人打入地狱受苦;但是,如果瞋怒有情,却会带来地狱的苦害。Even if such a king were to become angry, could he cause the pain of hell, which is the fruit I would have to experience by displeasing sentient beings?(一三二)如是王虽喜,不能令成佛,然悦诸众生,终成无上觉。同样,使一个有权势的国王再高兴,也不能赐我成佛的安乐;但是取悦众生,最后一定可以圆满无上正觉。And even if such a king were to be kind, he could not possibly grant me Buddhahood, which is the fruit I would obtain by pleasing sentient beings.(一三三)云何犹不见,取悦有情果?来生成正觉,今世享荣耀。为什么我还看不出,取悦有情产生的巨大善果呢?取悦有情,能在未来成就佛果,今生也可以享受美誉等荣耀。Why do I not see that my future attainment of Buddhahood as well as glory, renown and happiness in this very life all come from pleasing sentient beings?(一三四)生生修忍得:貌美无病障,誉雅命久长,乐等转轮王12。在生死轮回之中,修习安忍也能使人得到:庄严殊妙的容貌、没有病痛障碍的健康身体、美好的名声、长寿久住,甚至能得到如转轮王一般的快乐。While in cyclic existence patience causes beauty, health and renown. Because of these I shall live for a very long time and win the extensive pleasures of the Universal King Cakravarti. 第六品完第十三讲完 注释1佛在《华严经》〈行愿品〉说过:「复次善男子,言恒顺众生者,谓尽法界虚空界,十方剎海,所有众生若胎生...我皆于彼随顺而转。种种承事,种种供养,如敬父母,如奉师长,及阿罗汉,乃至如来,等无有异。...」所以对众生不但不能瞋恨恼害,而且还要进一步以恭敬心对待。2例如《华严经》〈行愿品〉说:「譬如旷野沙碛之中,有大树王;若根得水,枝叶华果,悉皆繁茂。生死旷野菩提树王,亦复如是。一切众生而为树根,诸佛菩萨而为华果,以大悲水饶益众生,则能成就诸佛菩萨智慧华果。...善男子,汝于此义,应如是解:以于众生心平等故,则能成就圆满大悲。以大悲心随顺众生故,则能成就供养如来。」3根据《佛本生传》〈白莲花论〉记载:「世尊于无量劫畏宣妙音王如来佛法隐末期,化现为常不轻菩萨。当时佛教出现很多增上慢比丘,但这常不轻菩萨(即未来的释迦牟尼佛),既不诵经,亦不说法;但他每遇到任何众生,只重复地说这句话:『我绝不会轻视你。大尊者,你不会受到我任何欺凌。为何如此?因你们皆行菩萨行,将来必获圆满佛果。』当时常不轻菩萨这种浊世清流行径虽遭受多方面的排斥,甚至身体亦受到痛击,但他仍坚持这种做法。以此因缘,常不轻菩萨于虚空中得畏宣妙音王如来传授妙法白莲花法门;而且经过精进修持后得神变、誓言、辩才和智慧四力成就,并以此法门调伏教化众生。当时不少人都对常不轻菩萨生起敬意,并发起菩提心,种下获圆满果位的因缘。」4因为佛陀伟大,所以我们坚信供养祂就能获得功德;同样,众生则具备菩提心和善良。如果我们认为菩提心和善良伟大,众生亦同样值得我们礼敬。5汉传《楞严经》说:「将此深心奉尘剎,是则名为报佛恩。」意思是要把成佛,跟着化度众生的心愿付诸实践,供奉微尘数诸佛,才算是报答佛恩。6这并不是要你做大众的奴仆,斟茶递水;而是让自己透过恭敬承侍众生,除了令佛欢喜外,自己菩提心亦能日益增长。正如农夫为了要有好的收成,得把农田整理好,而不是要农夫做耕田的仆人,要农夫好好地去芜草移碎石,才能在这片土地上有好的收成。7巴楚仁波切在《心止师教》中说:「如果杀害众生,以血肉供养本尊圣众,其实就如同在母亲面前杀死她的独子,然后以儿子的血肉供养母亲一样,这样做一切大悲智慧尊都会闷绝,那里还有可能生欢喜心呢?」(《心止师教》II第六十五页)又例如现今有很多人在佛前供花果,希望圣众生起欢喜加持。但在花果供品看到小虫,就马上夹起扔掉,不管小虫死活。其实这是对诸佛圣尊最大的伤害,这种供养是没有意义的。8以前我们以「我见」作主人,现在转换以众生作主人,不管众生怎样对待自己,我们都要安忍。9这句偈颂说明了修安忍三种利益:令佛喜、成自利和除世间苦。10由于佛陀视众生如同自己的子女,如果报复伤害弱小有情,无疑也违逆伤害了佛,自己解脱成佛的愿望亦落空;此外,如果我们因瞋恨而报复弱小仇敌,残害众生,犯下恶业,就会被抓到地狱去,受种种酷刑锯裂劈割,烊热铜水浇灌。如果考虑到这种损害弱小仇敌的行为会为自己带来远离诸佛圣贤行列,结果招致阎罗狱卒的折磨痛苦,你会选择安忍仇敌的损害,抑或对仇敌瞋害报复呢?11寂天菩萨在这里提醒害怕冒犯权威的一般人,例如军官、富豪、政客等,可是却不在乎损害众生;害怕眼前轻微的苦害,却不介意将来遭受巨大的痛苦;这完全是我们目光短浅,受邪见影响,不明因果所致。12转轮王(Universal King Cakravarti):根据佛经传说,在人寿八万四千岁的远古时期,有一个统治宇宙的大王出现,统治四大洲;当时天空出现一个巨大的轮,只要转轮王往何地方去,这个巨大的轮就会好像超级无敌的武器一样,跟着到那处降伏当地国家,令他们归顺。最后整个宇宙之内,便由转轮王来统一。应用讨论问题一)寂天菩萨说:「非说智德等,由用故云等;有情助成佛,故说生佛等。」佛与众生都是殊胜福田,但并不是说众生即是佛。「佛与众生都是殊胜福田」这句说话只是指在帮助修行人成佛这一点来说,佛和众生具有同一殊胜助缘的特质;而不是说众生就是佛,所以要恭敬供养;否则众生又何用修行呢?众生即佛这句说话只助长众生傲慢烦恼而已。试据颂一一四说明利害。二)你觉得佛对自己有恩吗?如有的话,祂透过什么来施恩给你?你又会怎样报答佛恩呢?三)寂天菩萨认为我们面对众生的伤害,都不应去报复,或是设法去损害众生;其中最重要的原因是不想佛因我们损害众生而伤心。试就〈安忍品〉撷取有关偈颂说明!如果你以往真的有伤害过众生,你会如何对佛忏悔?四)持戒的精要是不害众生,安忍的精要是恭敬众生;试引寂天菩萨偈颂引证。五)寂天菩萨提出安忍有三大利益:令佛欢喜、成自利和除去世间苦。这些都是学佛修行人的目标。试引偈颂分别列出安忍利益,并加以 说明。六)寂天菩萨指出五浊恶世的人都有颠倒见,例如害怕受眼前轻微的苦害而冒犯权威;但不介意将来遭受巨大的苦报而损害弱小的众生。试引偈颂说明人类这种欺善怕恶和欠缺公义的短浅目光,并且说明应如何纠正。七)试依寂天菩萨偈颂,说明仍在生死轮回中的人修习安忍,有何现世乐果。