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入菩萨行讲义 第十七讲 静虑品

导读:第十七讲【静虑品】 Lecture 17 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零四年十月二日 上次已讲解了除去障碍着我们行持静虑波罗蜜的散乱,首先就是要于外断舍尘缘。这次主要讲解去除散乱的第二步,就是于内断舍妄念。引起妄念主要成因是贪心,贪执美色和财富。寂天菩萨从男性修行者的观点出发,教示如何观女身不净。这不是歧视女性。事实上,在生死轮回中,我们有几多世是男身,几多...

第十七讲【静虑品】 Lecture 17 : Chapter Eight Meditation 日期:二零零四年十月二日 上次已讲解了除去障碍着我们行持静虑波罗蜜的散乱,首先就是要于外断舍尘缘。这次主要讲解去除散乱的第二步,就是于内断舍妄念。引起妄念主要成因是贪心,贪执美色和财富。寂天菩萨从男性修行者的观点出发,教示如何观女身不净。这不是歧视女性。事实上,在生死轮回中,我们有几多世是男身,几多世是女身,都很难说清。男女相悦,总皆是贪欲烦恼串习生起的梦幻妄境;我们毋须执着。但要提的是,贪恋异性是轮回根本,是苦的总因;若是要解脱离苦,就一定要梵行。如世尊于《法句譬喻经》〈爱欲品〉云:「如树根深固,虽截犹复生;爱意不尽除,辄当还受苦。」又云:「夫从爱润泽,思想为滋蔓;爱欲深无底,要死是用增。」厉力梵行来断淫根是帮助我们舍弃妄念最好的方法;亦是断除苦果,从轮回中解脱最难做到,但一定要做到的教法。

(三十九)现世及来世,诸欲引灾祸,今生砍杀缚,来世入地狱。令感官悦意的五种欲望引生今生及来世的灾难。引致今生被牢困、击打和砍杀,继而在来世引致堕入地狱受苦的结果。Both in this world and the next desires give rise to great misfortune: in this life killing, bondage and flaying, and in the next the existence of the hells.

(四十)月老媒婆前,何故屡恳求?为何全不忌,诸罪或恶名?在月老媒婆面前,为何总有人要恳求牵线作媒?为什么他们没有一点儿顾忌,不惜以犯下重罪和羞耻作为代价?For the sake of women many requests are first of all made between go-betweens, all forms of evil and even notoriety are not avoided for their sake.

(四十一)纵险吾亦投,资财愿耗尽,只为女入怀,销魂获至乐。将自己堕入险境中,牺牲自己的金钱健康,以为与她拥抱在一起,就能带给自己最大的欢乐。I engaged in fearful deeds for them and will even consume my wealth, but these very bodies of others that I greatly enjoy in the sexual embrace.

入菩萨行讲义 第十七讲 静虑品

(四十二)除骨更无余,与其苦贪执,非我自主躯,何如趣涅槃?她只不过是一堆白骨,便无其他可贪之物;与其苦苦贪恋这个非我能拥有与自主的女身,何不追求解脱的涅槃妙乐呢?They are nothing other than skeletons. They are not autonomous and are identityless. Rather than being so desirous and completely obsessed, why do I not go to the state beyond sorrow instead?

(四十三)始则奋抬头,亲近羞垂视;葬前见未见,悉以纱覆面。初见面时,女子鼓足勇气振奋起来才敢抬头;揭开面纱后,更加害羞,只敢低头垂视。在她死亡送上坟场之前,任何男士都要因为面纱遮住了而未见过这副脸儿。In the first place I made efforts to lift her veil and when it was raised she bashfully looked down. Previously whether anyone looked or not, her face was covered with a cloth.

(四十四)昔隐惑君容,今现明眼前,鹫已去其纱,既见何故逃?从前使你迷惑颠倒的那张面孔,现在被坟场的秃鹰揭开了,完全呈现在眼前。瞧瞧看!为何你现在要害怕逃跑呢?But now why do I run away upon directly beholding this face that disturbs the mind as it is being revealed to me by the vultures?

(四十五)昔日他眼窥,汝即忙守护,今鹫食彼肉,吝汝何不护?吝啬嫉妒的汉子啊!昔日别的男人仅用眼角偷偷去欣赏,你就急忙地遮挡他们的视线;今日秃鹰在撕食她的皮肉,你为何不去保护她呢?(Previously) I completely protected her body when others cast their eyes upon it. Why, mister, do you not protect it now while it is being devoured by these birds?

(四十六)既见此聚尸,鹫兽竞分食,何苦以花饰,殷献鸟兽食?眼见这堆不净物所聚成的尸体,被众多秃鹰、野兽所吞噬,你还会以花鬘、涂香和饰物,殷勤地奉献给这鸟兽的食物吗?Since vultures and others are eating this pile of meat that I behold, why did I offer flower garlands, sandalwood and ornaments to that which is now the food of others?

(四十七)若汝见白骨,静卧犹惊怖,何不惧少女,灵动如活尸?虽然这东西(尸体)已不再孺动了,但这是你曾经喜爱过的,现在你却对它生起了恐惧。那么,你对像尸体一样由风大带动的少女,为什么又一点儿也不害怕呢?If I am frightened by the skeletons I see, even though they do not move, why am I not frightened by walking corpses which are moved around by a few (impulses)?

(四十八)昔衣汝亦贪,今裸何不欲?若谓厌不净,何故拥着衣?1从前,连为衣饰所蔽的女身都要贪爱;现在为何不去贪爱那裸露的女尸呢?如果说你不喜欢那不净的尸体,那你为何拥抱着原本污秽但穿着衣服的女人而感到满足呢?难道你贪爱她的衣服吗?Although I am attached to it when it is covered (with clothes) why do I not desire it when it is uncovered? Since I have no need for it then, why copulate with it when it is covered?

(四十九)粪便与口涎,悉从饮食生,何故贪口液,不乐臭粪便?(女身的)唾液和排泄物皆源自相同的饮食;那为何你不喜欢排泄物,却又喜欢吸吮(女身的)唾液呢?Since both excrement and saliva arise solely from food, why do I dislike excrement and find joy in saliva?

入菩萨行讲义 第十七讲 静虑品

(五十)嗜欲者不贪,柔软木棉枕,谓无女体臭。彼诚迷秽垢。对脏物昏了头的你,不贪着软棉棉的枕头,因为枕头没有女人的体味。Cotton too is soft to the touch, but while I find no (sexual) delight in a pillow I think that (a woman’s body) does not emit a putrid odor, lustful one, you are confused as to what is unclean!

(五十一)迷劣欲者言:「棉枕虽滑柔,难成鸳鸯眠。」于彼反生瞋。2迷惑于卑劣俗事的贪欲者说:「木棉枕虽然光滑柔软,却不能两相交合,鸳鸯共眠。」因此,对它产生了恨意。Thinking that they cannot sleep with this cotton although it is soft to the touch, confused, negative and lustful people become angry towards it (instead).

(五十二)若谓厌不净,肌腱系骨架,肉泥粉饰女,何以拥入怀?假如你说对不净(的粪便等)物没有好感的话,那么你为何要紧紧拥抱着女身?对方只不过是由肌腱连合起的骷髅骨架,内充脏腑,外玷肉酱,再以薄皮粉饰而已。If I am not attached to the unclean, then why do I copulate with the lower parts of others’ bodies which are merely cages of bones tied together with muscles, plastered over with the mud of flesh?

(五十三)汝自多不净,日用恒经历,岂贪不得足,犹图他垢囊?你自己充满了很多不净物,而且日用寻常,时刻都经历伴随着它们,难道这还不够吗?为何还要贪图其他的臭皮囊呢?I myself contain many unclean things which I constantly experience; so why, because of an obsession for uncleanliness, do I desire other bags of filth?

(五十四)若谓喜彼肉,欲观并摸触,则汝何不欲,无心尸肉躯?如果说你喜欢她的肉体,很想多看一眼,并触摸她,那么你为什么不贪求那已经死亡的无心尸肉呢?But it is the flesh that I enjoy. This is what I wish to touch and behold, why do I not desire it in its natural state devoid of any mind?

(五十五)汝所欲彼心,无从观与触,可触非心识,空拥何所为?如果你说贪求的是她的心,但是心识既无法观赏,也无法触摸,可以触及的绝对不是心识,你为何这么无聊,要拥抱着她的身体呢?Furthermore, any mind that I may desire is unable to be touched or behold, and whatever I am able to touch will not be mental; so why indulge in this meaningless copulation?

(五十六)不明他不净,犹非稀奇事,不知自不净,此则太稀奇。不明白别人的身体是由脏物而组成,这一点不足为奇;可是你却不察觉自己的肉体其实亦都是不干净,这点倒令人感到惊讶。It is not so strange that I do not understand the bodies of others to be of an unclean nature. But it is indeed strange that I do not understand my very own body to be by nature unclean.

(五十七)汝执不净心,何故舍晨曦,初启嫩莲花,反着垢秽囊?你这个贪爱脏物的糊涂心啊!你为何不爱乐在晨曦刚开启的白嫩香洁莲花,反而要贪着那充满污秽的臭皮囊呢?Having forsaken the young lotus flower unfolded by means of sunlight free from cloud, why, with a mind craving for what is unclean, do I revel in a cage of filth?

(五十八)若汝不欲触,粪便所涂地,云何反欲抚,泄垢体私处? 如果你不想触摸曾经涂过粪便的地方,那为什么反而想去抚摸天天排泄粪便的下体呢?Since I do not wish to touch a place that is smeared with excrement, then why do I wish to touch the body from which that (excrement) arose?

(五十九)若谓厌不净,垢种所孕育,秽处所出生,何以搂入怀?假如你对脏物没有好感的话,那么由腥臭的父精母血孕育而成,再由骯脏的产道生出来的女身,你为何又紧紧的拥抱着呢?If I am not attached to what is unclean, why do I copulate with the lower parts of others’ bodies which arise from the unclean field (of a womb) and are produced by the seeds within it?

(六十)粪便所生蛆,虽小尚不欲,云何汝反欲,垢生不净躯?粪便中长出来的蛆虫,虽然很小,你也不喜欢碰触它;怎么你反而贪求不净胎中所生的,而且充满不净物的(女子)身躯呢?I have no wish for a small dirty maggot which has come from a pile of filth, so why do I desire this body which by nature is grossly unclean, for it too was produced by filth?

(六十一)汝自不净身,非仅不轻弃,反因贪不净,图彼臭皮囊。你不但不讨厌自己充满污秽的身体,反而因执爱不净之物,而渴望拥抱其他盛载脏物的臭皮囊。Not only do I not disparage the uncleanliness of my own body, but because of an obsession for what is unclean I desire other bags of filth as well.

(六十二)宜人冰片等,米饭或菜蔬,食已复排出,大地亦染污。 诸如清凉退热的冰片等调味品、可口的米饭和美味的蔬果,吃进不净身后再排泄出来,大地也因此而变得不净。Even attractive things such as savory foods, cooked rice and vegetables, make the ground dirty and unclean, should they be spat out after being in the mouth.

(六十三)垢身浊如此,亲见若复疑,应观寒林尸,及余不净物。身体的污浊是显而易见的,如果你仍有怀疑,请看看那些被遗弃在坟场墓地的尸体,和其他令人呕心的恶臭景象。Although such uncleanliness is obvious, if I still have doubts I should go to the cemeteries and look at the unclean bodies (of others) that have been thrown away there.

(六十四)皮表迸裂尸,见者生大畏,知已复何能,好色生欢喜?在寒林中看到皮肤被撕离躯体时,当然会生起大怖畏,了知这一点后,你还会再去贪爱那不净的身躯吗?Having realized that when their skin is rent open they give rise to a great deal of fear, how will such things as these ever again give rise to joy?

(六十五)涂身微妙香,栴檀非她身,何以因异香,贪着她身躯?女人身上所散发的微妙香气,发自涂抹的栴檀香水,而非她的身体。既然如此,为何你因喜爱香水而贪着女人的躯体呢? The scents with which someone’s body is anointed are sandalwood and the like, but not that of the other’s body, so why am I attached to others’ (bodies) because of scents that are other (than theirs)?

(六十六)身味若本臭,不贪岂非善?贪俗无聊辈,为何身涂香?如果身体本来就是臭秽的话,便不要去贪着它,这岂非明智之举?那些贪爱低俗欲乐的无聊之辈,为什么偏要在不净身上涂抹香水?Since the body has a naturally foul odor, isn’t it good to be unattached to it? Why do those who crave for the meaningless things of the world anoint this body with pleasant scents?

(六十七)若香属栴檀,身出乃异味,何以因异香,贪爱女身躯?妙香如果是从栴檀香水所发出,而身体的味道与此完全不同,那又何必为了不相干的香气,而贪爱女人的身躯呢?And furthermore, if it is the pleasant scent of sandalwood, how can it come from the body? So why am I attached to others’ (bodies) because of scents that are other (than theirs)?

(六十八)长发污修爪,黄牙泥臭味,皆令人怖畏,躯体自本性,(何以苦贪着?)3这个盛载着令人呕心的脏物身躯,它的本来面目是:蓬头脏乱的长发;又长又尖的黑垢指甲;牙齿又布满黄斑斑的污垢;浑身汗泥臭味;看见便令人怖畏,你为何会贪着这伪饰的身体呢?Since the naked body (left) in its natural state is very frightening due to its long hair and nails, its yellowish foul-smelling teeth and its being coated with the odor of dirt.

(六十九)饰身伤己器,何故令锋利?自迷痴狂徒,呜呼满天下!伪饰的身体就好像一件用来自毁的武器一样,你为什么拼命地去擦拭磨利它呢?世间满是愚痴疯癫的人,他们都在诳惑自己!Why do I make such an effort to polish it like (cleaning) a weapon that will cause me harm? Hence the entire world is disturbed with insanity due to the exertions of those who are confused about themselves.

(七十)寒林唯见骨,意若生厌离,岂乐活白骨,充塞寒林城?在坟场中看到不动的尸骨,都已经被吓得心生厌离了,你为何还偏爱陶醉着要住在这个充满活动白骨的寒林城乡中?When my mind rises (above worldly concerns), through having behold nothing but skeletons in the cemetery, will there be any joy in graveyard cities which are filled with moving skeletons?

第十七讲完

注释

1 藏本第四十八颂,即梵本第五十一颂,而藏本第五十一颂在梵本是没有的。以前布敦大师亦有提及过。今依藏本。2 梵文本无此颂。而前第四十八颂则应放在这里解读。布敦大师早已说明。今依藏本。3 有些译本省略这句。

入菩萨行讲义 第十七讲 静虑品

应用讨论问题一)贪欲乃轮回之根本,虽然影响别人没有瞋恚那么大,但始终是人生痛苦的根,障碍圣道。而佛经中说:「增上贪欲者,不知理非理。」当内心贪欲增上时,心智已被蒙蔽,偏执着「本应舍」的不净身,虚妄地生起种种满足感官的幻觉,与真如正智背道而驰。试根据〈静虑品〉第四十三至七十颂,说明「女身本不清净,不应执取」的道理。二)《华严经》说:「心不在内外,心亦无所有;妄取故有法,无取则寂灭。」凡夫贪爱异性,执取触乐,以为这种欲乐是对方给予自己 ,实在是一种一厢情愿的计执。长期计执串习,便产生真实感,轮回苦根便因此而深深种下了。相反,如以智慧勘破妄相与自心淫根习气,不再执取,便可得到寂灭。诚如《楞严经》说:「纵有多智,禅定现前,若不断淫,必落魔道。」试依寂天菩萨〈静虑品〉说明如何舍妄念,断除情根。三)佛家主张简约的生活,反对衣着奢华,先有龙树说「诸于不净身,装饰作赞颂,奇哉谬且愚,奇哉士所耻。」寂天菩萨承袭此说,试根据〈静虑品〉颂六十五、六十六和六十九说明。