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入菩萨行讲义 第五讲 护正知品

导读:第五讲 【护正知品】 Lecture 5 : Chapter Five Guarding Alertness 日期:二零零三年五月三日 第四品〈不放逸〉和第五品〈护正知〉都是讨论发起持守菩萨戒后如何守戒的问题。寂天菩萨在第四品提出使我们破誓毁戒最大的原因是自己内心为烦恼所转(overwhelmed by disturbing emotions)。所以先以「不放逸」,时刻拚命对治烦恼,中观应成派...
第五讲 【护正知品】 Lecture 5 : Chapter Five Guarding Alertness 日期:二零零三年五月三日 第四品〈不放逸〉和第五品〈护正知〉都是讨论发起持守菩萨戒后如何守戒的问题。寂天菩萨在第四品提出使我们破誓毁戒最大的原因是自己内心为烦恼所转(overwhelmed by disturbing emotions)。所以先以「不放逸」,时刻拚命对治烦恼,中观应成派圣天菩萨在《四百论》第六品说:「人生最苦的是什么?就是我们没有确认烦恼带来痛苦的能力;当被烦恼缠着时,此时我们已被削去摆脱它们的动力。」圣天菩萨更指出,以禁欲或苦行来约束身体不能令自己摆脱烦恼,更不能阻止我们造作染污的行为,因为烦恼已在我们心内植根;因此,要了解烦恼,要了解它们运作,它们带来的后果是什么,才能避免为烦恼所困扰,才能利乐有情。师承圣天菩萨,寂天菩萨在第五品〈护正知〉提出,我们不要戒条,外在的戒律只是为当时特殊的处境(particular circumstance)而订出的戒条;要持守菩萨戒,重点在保护修行者的内心。他说:「欲护学处(戒律)者,策励当护心;此心不能护,云何能护戒?」寂天菩萨跟着引用佛的教示:「一切诸怖畏,无量众苦痛,皆从心所生。」并罕有地说佛是究竟量士夫,衡审真理的标准,他认为一切痛苦非来自外界,而是完全由内心创造出来,并没有外在的力量或造物主能操控我们;反之,快乐、痛苦、美好、丑陋,完全是个人及群体业力共创而已。寂天菩萨补充说:「若不知此心,奥秘法中尊,求乐或避苦,无义终飘泊。」依据这个奥秘,寂天菩萨提出六度依心,并提醒修行人,就算是长时期诵经,甚至苦行,「然心散它处,佛说彼无益。」最后,寂天菩萨得出一个结论:「我云何修行,修行唯护心。」但接着的问题是:如何去守护这颗心?要了知护心的工作很艰巨,现象界中最具杀伤力的烦恼时常尾随着我们;寂天菩萨提供两件工具给我们,让我们护持这颗菩提心,一是正知(alertness, samprajanya),内心那份时刻仔细、清楚地监察着身、语、意三门的力量;二是正念(mindfulness, smrti),内心非常清楚、中效地知道对境的事情何者「应取」、何者「应舍」。其中正念尤紧要;当我们觉知自己对善恶不知取舍,受烦恼控制时,立即告诉自己下三恶趣的痛苦,正念便会住回内心!正念安住内心后,「正知即随临,逝者亦复返」。(一)欲护学处者,策励当护心,此心不能护,云何能护戒。对于希望守护生命正道的人,他们必须彻底地保护自己的心。如果不能守护好这颗心,根本不能守持任何戒律。Those who wish to guard their practice should very attentively guard their minds. For those who do not guard their minds will be unable to guard their practice.(二)若纵狂象心,受难无间狱;未驯大狂象,为患不及此。如果放纵那如狂象一般粗野放逸的心,这将带我们堕进无间地狱的痛苦中。即使世间最凶猛的狂象,也不能为我们带来如此严重的灾难。In this world subdued and crazed elephants are incapable of causing such harms as the miseries of the deepest hell which can be caused by the unleashed elephant of my mind.(三)念索常执持,系缚于心象,得离放逸怖,获一切福善。但假使我们用正念的绳索,紧紧地拴住那如狂象粗野的心,内心的恐惧便会完全消失,每一点的功德也会流进我们手中。 But if the elephant of my mind is firmly bound on all sides by the rope of mindfulness, all fears will cease to exist and all virtues will come into my hand.(四)虎狮大象熊,蛇及一切敌,有情地狱卒,及恶神罗剎,狮子、老虎、大象、巨熊、毒蛇等一切具敌意的野兽,地狱的狱卒,还有恶鬼罗剎等妖魔鬼怪;Tigers, lions, elephants, bears, snakes and all form of enemies, the guardians of the hell worlds, evil spirits and cannibals,(五)若能系一心,一切皆能系;若自降一心,一切自降伏。 只要简单地以正念来约束着这颗心,这一切的怖畏自然会受到控制。调伏这颗心,所有害敌都变得驯服。Will all be bound by binding my mind alone, and all will be subdued by subduing my mind alone.(六)实语者佛言:「一切诸怖畏,无量众苦痛,皆从心所生。」 实语者(究竟量士夫)佛陀曾说过:「世上一切恐惧和焦虑,以及一切无量的痛苦,都是从内心产生出来的。」The Perfect Teacher himself has shown that in this way all fears as well as all boundless miseries originate from the mind. (七)地狱众苦器,何人故意造?谁制烧铁地?女众从何出?1地狱刑具使众生受尽苦楚,是谁令他们受这样的苦?这样做有何目的?是谁制造热的铁板地呢?这些魔女是从哪里来的?Who intentionally created all the weapons for those in hell? Who created the burning iron ground? From where did all the women in hell ensue? (八)佛说彼一切,皆由恶心造,是故三界中,恐怖莫甚心。佛说这一切都是由恶心而来,在三界之内,没有其他东西比恶心更能带来祸害。The Mighty One has said that all such things are the workings of an evil mind. Hence within the three world spheres, there is nothing to fear other than my mind.(九)若除众生贫,始圆施度者,今犹见饥贫,昔佛云何成? 假如圆满布施波罗蜜能驱除众生的贫穷,但贫穷仍然依旧常与我们结伴,那么,往昔诸佛是如何修持圆满的布施波罗蜜呢?If the perfection of generosity is the alleviation of the world’s poverty, then since beings are still starving now in what manner did the previous Buddhas perfect it?(十)心乐与众生,身财及果德,依此施度圆;故施唯依心。 所谓圆满布施波罗蜜是:内心乐意将身体、一切财物和果位功德,作为礼物,赐予每一众生,经教说这就是布施圆满。因此,布施波罗蜜完全是依心而圆满。The perfection of generosity is said to be the thought to give all beings everything, together with the fruit of such a thought hence it is simply a state of mind.(十一)逐鱼至何方,始得不遭伤?断尽恶心时,说为戒度圆。需要将鱼儿等有情安置到哪个地方,才不至受到伤害呢?决意不伤害它们,完全舍离杀盗等恶念时,就是持戒圆满。Nowhere has the killing of fish and other creatures been eradicated; for the attainment of merely the thought to forsake such things is explained as the perfection of moral discipline.(十二)顽者如虚空,岂能尽制彼?若息此瞋心,则同灭众敌。顽劣的有情多得如虚空–何时才能把它们全部降伏呢?如果能息灭内在的瞋心的话,则等同消灭了外在的一切怨敌。Unruly beings are as unlimited as space; they cannot possibly all be overcome, but if I overcome thoughts of anger alone this will be equivalent to vanquishing all foes.(十三)大地量无边,何皮而能盖?片革垫靴底,即同覆大地。(为了保护双足,避免被刺伤)如果要用牛皮来铺大地,那么你可以找到多少片牛皮才足以把它全面覆盖呢?不过,只要你用适量的牛皮来包着自己双脚,不就等于用牛皮铺满大地吗?Where would I possibly find enough leather with which to cover the surface of the earth? But wearing leather just on the soles of my shoes is equivalent to covering the earth with it.(十四)如是吾不克,尽制诸外敌;吾应制此心,何劳制其余?同样,我们不可能将外界所有仇敌全部制服,而只要调伏自心瞋恨,还有什么外在敌人需要被制服呢?Likewise it is not possible for me to restrain the external course of things; but should I restrain this mind of mine what would be the need to restrain all else?(十五)生一明定心,亦得梵天果;身口业纵善,心弱难成就。仅是生起一份清净坚定的心意,便能获得生梵天的果2;身口纵然勤行善,要是内心意乐萎弱3,便不能生起如此(生梵天)的果。 Although the develop

入菩萨行讲义 第五讲 护正知品

ment of merely a clear state of concentration can result in taking rebirth in Brahma’s realm, physical and vocal actions cannot so result when accompanied by weak mental conduct.(十六)虽久习念诵,及余众苦行,然心散它处,佛说彼无益。虽然长时期修习诵经和其他苦行,但心却向其他的外缘流散,了知真理的佛陀说:「那是毫无利益的。」The knower of reality has said that even if recitation and physical hardships are practiced for long periods of time, they will be meaningless if the mind is distracted elsewhere.(十七)若不知此心,奥秘法中尊,求乐或避苦,无义终飘泊。对「心的奥秘」缺乏认知,又不深入了解佛法的殊胜精要,纵然他们努力追求快乐,避免痛苦,但仍免不了无意义地在轮回中流转。Even those who wish to find happiness and overcome misery will wander with no aim nor meaning if they do not comprehend the secret of the mind – the paramount significance of Dharma.(十八)我云何修行?修行唯护心!除此护心戒,何劳持余戒?既然如此,我(作为修行人)应好好地抓紧自心,好好地守护着它;除了(以正知正念)守护心的禁戒外,其他诸多(苛刻)的禁戒对我有何用?This being so, I shall hold and guard my mind

入菩萨行讲义 第五讲 护正知品

well. Without the discipline of guarding the mind, what use are many other disciplines?(十九)如处乱众中,人皆慎护疮;置身恶人群,常护此心伤。比如身处混乱的人群中,我们会小心翼翼地保护自己受了伤的伤口;同样,身处烦恼恶友群中生活时,我们也要好好护持着自己受了伤的心。Just as I would be attentive and careful of a wound when amidst a bustling uncontrolled crowd, so I should always guard the wound of my mind when dwelling among harmful people.(二十)若惧小疮痛,犹慎护疮伤;畏山夹毁者,何不护心伤?倘若我们不想伤口和疤痕再受创,便要细心保护自己的伤口。我们为何不保护自己内心的疮伤,免得再受众合地狱悬崖榨压夹碎的痛楚4呢? And if I am careful of a wound through fear of it being slightly hurt, then why do I not guard the wound of my mind through fear of being crushed by the mountains of hell?(二十一)行持若如斯,纵住恶人群。抑处女人窝,勤律终不退。假如这就是我平时(小心谨慎)行持和生活的方式,那么就算是活在瞋恚烦恼深重的恶人群中,或是与下贱妇人为伴,一切都不成问题了;我精勤地持戒,始终不会退减。Should I behave in such a way as this, then whether among harmful people or even in the midst of women, the steady eff

入菩萨行讲义 第五讲 护正知品

ort to control myself will not decline.(二十二)吾宁失利养,资身众活计,亦宁失余善,终不损此心。我宁愿减少财富、荣耀和地位,乃至健康和养命维生之计;甚至宁愿失坏其他的善行功德,也不愿有一刻损害这颗(正知正念的)心。It is better to be without wealth, honor, body and livelihood; and it is better to let other virtues deteriorate, rather than ever to let the virtues of the mind decline.(二十三)合掌诚劝请,欲护自心者,致力恒守护,正念与正知!我合起双掌,诚恳地叮咛那些愿意护持自心者;一定要致力于守护的要领:(清楚地知道当取和当舍的)正念和(清楚仔细观察三门的)正知5。O you who wish to guard your minds, I beseech you with folded hands; always exert yourself to guard mindfulness and alertness!(二十四)身疾所困者,无力为诸业;惑扰心亦然,无力成善业。身体为疾病所困扰的人,没有力量去做各种事业;同样,没有正知的心(惑扰心),受无明障蔽,什么善法都无法完成。People who are disturbed by sickness have no strength to do anything useful, likewise those whose minds are disturbed by confusion have no strength to do anything wholesome.(二十五)心无正知者,闻思修所得,如瓶之渗漏,不复住正念。自心没有以正知警策三门的人,他们虽然听闻、思考和修持佛法,但他们会如水装在漏孔的瓶一样,所学之法将不会在他们的意识中留下来。Whatever has been learnt, contemplated and meditated upon by those whose minds lack alertness, just like water in a leaking vase, will not be retained in their memory.(二十六)纵信复多闻,数数勤精进,然因无正知,终染犯堕垢。有很多人具足奉献心,性格坚毅;而且学识广博,充满信心。可惜因为缺乏警策三门的正知毛病,最终还是会为堕罪所染。Even those who have much learning, faith and willing perseverance will become defiled by a moral fall due to the mistake of lacking alertness.(二十七)惑贼不正知,尾随念失后,盗昔所聚福,令堕诸恶趣。不正知这个烦恼贼躲在一角,当正念减弱时,他们便趁机立即窜入,盗走人们以前所积集的福德,使人在不知不觉中堕向恶趣。The thieves of unalertness, in following upon the decline of mindfulness, will steal even the merits I have firmly gathered so that I shall then proceed to lower realms.(二十八)烦恼众盗贼,寻隙欲打劫,得便夺善财,复毁善趣命。这群烦恼的盗贼,正在等待着机会去伤害我们;乘隙夺走我们的善根,甚至要毁坏我们获得善趣解脱的命根。The host of thieves who are my own disturbing conceptions will search for a good opportunity. Having found it they will steal my virtue and destroy the attainment of life in a happy realm.(二十九)故终不稍纵,正念离意门,离则思诸患,复住于正念。因此,我们无论何时都不应该放纵正念,任由它离开心意的大门。一旦离开,我们就要透过忆念下恶道的极度痛苦,然后把心重新安住在正念上。Therefore I shall never let mindfulness depart from the doorway of my mind. If it goes, I should recall the misery of the lower realms and firmly re-established it there.(三十)恒随上师尊,堪布赐开示,畏敬有缘者,恒易生正念。经常跟随上师尊长,听闻堪布开示正法,透过畏惧堕落的心理,这样有善根而又敬信佛法的人,会经常生出正念。Through staying in the company of spiritual masters, through the instructions of abbots and through fear, mindfulness will easily be generated in fortunate people who practice with respect. (三十一)佛及菩萨众,无碍见一切,故吾诸言行,必现彼等前。诸佛和菩萨具清净无碍见,能谛见诸法。因此我们所有行为和心念,必然能呈现在他们眼前。I am ever dwelling in the presence of all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who are always endowed with unobstructed vision.(三十二)如是思惟已,则生惭敬畏,循此复极易,殷殷随念佛。如此思惟后,就会对自己不如法的行为和心念生起惭愧,对上师三宝生起敬畏之心,因而恒念正法;同时,依此也很容易使自己殷切地随生佛想。By thinking in this way I shall mindfully develop a sense of shame, respect and fear. Also through doing this, recollection of the Buddha will repeatedly occur.(三十三)为护心意门,安住正念已,正知即随临,逝者亦复返。 当正念(好像哨兵般)稳定地守护心意门,(彻底仔细检察防止烦恼侵袭)而将心安住于(忆念善法)正法后,正知也就自然地随着来临,有时暂失坏(忘念或散乱)时,都能随即返回。When mindfulness is set with the purpose of guarding the doorway of the mind, then alertness will come about and even that which has gone will return.第五讲完注释1 在八热地狱的等活地狱中,由于众生瞋恚心而造种种恶业,继而下堕此地狱中受报。众生由共同业力牵引,聚汇一处极灼热铁地基上,炽燃暗红的余烬,犹如雪霰飞舞盘绕。在无间地狱的铁柱山地狱中,违犯梵行和行邪淫的众生受业力牵引,听到山顶传来往昔爱侣的呼唤声,便奋力向山上攀登,此时被铁树向下生长的树叶刺入胸膛,直穿后背;到了山顶,却又找不到昔日的爱侣,只听得山下传来爱侣呼喊他们的声音。因业力牵引,他们又向山下奔去,这时铁叶反向上生长,伤口未愈,又重新受重创;到了山脚,爱侣却变成可怖的铁男铁女,从后拥抱着他们,吞噬他们的头,白色的脑浆从幻变的爱侣嘴角流出,异常痛苦。2《涅槃经》记载从前有一对母女共渡恒河,岂料河水突然暴涨,母女不幸同为大水所溺。这时母亲想:「如果女儿不被水淹死,那么我死掉又何妨!」女儿亦同样的想:「如果母亲不被水淹死,那么我死掉亦何妨!」母女俩人最后不幸都给水淹死,但因她们一念善心,死后同生梵天。 3 这里指那些纵然自残身体而修习苦行多年的外道,就连梵天善果也得不到,例如《长老偈》记载他们的苦行:「整整廿五年,尘垢积身满;须发手拔除,每月仅一餐。单足而站立,床座不近身;吃得干屎粪,供施皆不取。」虽然他们希望生天,但却不知道(背后)一切善果其实皆由心而生。他们这样自残身心,根本是违背精进,无法成就善果。佛家将这种愚痴的表现称为怠惰。4 众生受业力牵引,堕至众合地狱的山谷。山谷两旁幻化往昔为他们杀害的麋鹿和山羊,他们的角尖燃着火,山谷两旁的山互相猛烈撞击,众生身体顿时受到不可思议的恐惧和粉身碎骨的痛苦。跟着两山分开,杀生者再次复活,而且又再如前般聚在山谷间感受极大的痛苦。5 正念(mindfulness):很清楚、正确地知道「当取」和「当舍」的行为。正知(alertness):清楚、仔细地监察自己的身、语、意。应用讨论问题一)寂天菩萨说:「诸害由心生」,放纵自心就像让未能驯服的狂象跑到闹市里去,带来大灾祸。试阐述其理及解决方法。二)巴楚仁波切主张不放逸修行,时常以正知观照自己三门,以正念忆念善法,哪些应取,哪些应舍。早起夜寝都要自省有多少善业,多少恶业,进行策勉忏悔。试引巴楚仁波切早晚祈愿文以对。三)寂天菩萨认为如果能调伏自己这颗心,所有怨害都变得驯服,所谓:「若自降一心,一切自降伏」(第五颂)。试以密勒日巴在山洞修行,受魔女及阿咱玛作害;但密勒日巴以降调自心,感化魔怨,自行隐退这事实来说明。四)佛说:「一切诸怖畏,无量众苦痛,皆从心所生」(第六颂)。试举地狱现象,引证「佛说彼一切,皆由恶心造」(第八颂)的道理。 五)第五品由第九颂至第十七颂,寂天菩萨提出六度依心原理,试引颂文阐述其意。六)寂天菩萨说:「除此护心戒,何劳持余戒。」意思是说除了护持自心之外,其他的戒律有什么用呢?你怎样去理解「何劳持余戒」?此外,你认为寂天菩萨的中观思想与中土禅宗六祖的「心平何劳持戒」有何同异之处?七)内心没有正知,会产生何种过患?如何才能使正知重回内心?八)根据寂天菩萨所说,如何才可使正念在内心较容易生起?试引颂说明。